Italian journal of engineering geology and environment 2023-07-18T19:52:25+00:00 Editorial Staff Open Journal Systems <p>Italian journal of engineering geology and environment (IJEGE) is a six-montly peer-reviewed open access journal promoted by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Research center on Prediction, Prevention ad Control of Geological Risks (CERI)</a> of Sapienza Università di Roma and it is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Engineering Geology and Environment (AIGA)</a>. IJEGE publishes original papers concerning the numerous topics of environmental risks such as seismic risk, landslide risk, hydraulic and flood risk, groundwater resource management, soil and groundwater contamination, reclamation of contaminated land, applied geophysics, economic geology, land use, soil and rock characterization.<br />IJEGE is indexed both in Scopus and ESCI (Emerging sources citation index - Web of science).</p> “Natural disasters”, global change and the need for a common language 2023-07-18T08:26:52+00:00 Gabriele Scarascia Mugnozza 2023-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gabriele Scarascia Mugnozza Natural and anthropogenic risks: proposal for an interdisciplinary glossary 2023-07-18T18:34:40+00:00 Pasquale Versace Giulio Zuccaro Dario Albarello Gabriele Scarascia Mugnozza <p>In the past few years, Italy has been ravaged by catastrophic events of natural or anthropogenic origin. These events have highlighted, once again, the need to take prevention measures in order to mitigate the damage that similar future events could inflict on the Italian social and economic system. As the costs of these measures might be very high, available resources should be allocated carefully, assigning priority to areas with the highest potential risk. Therefore, estimating the potential damage caused by events expected both in the near future and on a longer timescale in a reliable way might be an important tool for pursuing an effective prevention policy. The growing diversification and extent of urbanised areas and economic activities make the estimation of the above effects increasingly complex. Hence, reliance should be made on a combination of disciplines that may be very different from or that have often developed independently of one another over the years. However, this combination has resulted in discrepancies in methodological approaches, which have impaired the effectiveness of communication to the authorities in charge of prevention policies. This document proposes a common way through which the scientific community may present its arguments and express its opinions about risks at the request of policymakers. In particular, the document proposes the use of a glossary with a view to overcoming “language” barriers among the various disciplines and defining a common lexicon. The document is organised as follows. The second section provides an overview of the rationale for a common terminology and the features that it should have, explaining its logical structure and normative purpose. Section 3 defines the concept of risk analysis in simple terms, highlighting the possible ambiguities associated with this concept that need further insights. Section 4 proposes a formalisation of the logical process to be followed in carrying out assessments and expressing opinions on various risks. This section also deals, in general terms, with the main items of information considered and their mutual relations. Section 5 presents the glossary, i.e. a list of terms, their definitions, and, where necessary, their application contexts. Finally, a short list of references used in the document is provided.</p> 2023-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pasquale Versace, Giulio Zuccaro, Dario Albarello, Gabriele Scarascia Mugnozza Phosphorus concentration mechanisms and phosphorite formation, case study: the formation of francolite in Akashat Phosphorite of Eastern Tethys, Iraqi Western Desert 2023-07-18T18:52:33+00:00 Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey Salim M. Al-Dabbagh <p>The increasing in P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> content from 70 ppb in seawater to more than 30 wt% in marine phosphorites is a multi-stage process, which includes: the biological trapping of P from the sea, the enrichment of P by decay, the reverse fluxing of P to seawater, the upwelling currents, the formation of phosphatic phases, the early and late diagenetic processes (lithification, mechanical, chemical and biological) which lead to the formation and discrimination of the phosphatic grains (peloids, coprolites, ooides, cortoides, and fish teeth and bone remnants…etc.). The final stage represents the redistribution of phosphatic facies in depositional environments along the continental shelf. Depending upon the suggested views, one can describe the general mechanism as the biogenic – diagenetic phosphorite formations. Akashat phosphorites have mainly consisted of francolite, which depends on the chemical composition of interstitial water. P, Ca and Sr are related to the organic activity of the decay by bacteria in the interstitial water within the upper part of the sea floor mud. The organic material contributes in the collection of some elements like V, Pb, As and HREE from seawater and fixed them on phosphatic grains during the accumulative growth of the phosphatic grains., whereas Na, S, U, Y, and LREE reflect the chemical properties of the seawater in the shallow continental shelf. This environment represents the Francolite formation area which is exposed to partial isolation from the open sea by the local submarine bars, reflected by a slight increase in salinity and alkalinity. The mole/formula of carbonate in Francolite related to the multi diagentic processes toward the more stable phase (fluorapatite). In addition to the association of positive and negative anomalies of Ce and Eu, respectively, which indicated non-oxidizing conditions and without sub-marine volcanic activity through francolite formation. Both roles of primary formation and the diagenetic process play similar effects on the crystal chemistry of francolite.</p> 2023-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey, Salim M. Al-Dabbagh Statistical analysis of stone decay by salt mist - The cases of Rosa Arronches and SPI portuguese granites 2023-07-18T19:27:38+00:00 Maria Isabel Borges Cristina Dias <p>This study investigates the decay behaviour promoted by salt mist on “Rosa Arronches” and “SPI” Portuguese granites. These are two widely applied granites in the national and international markets, traded and exported to several countries. For the purpose of better understanding their behaviour and mechanical properties under a salt mist atmosphere two series of 150 cycles of a salt mist-controlled atmosphere was applied to sound samples. Petrographic and major mechanical properties were determined, according with European Standards, before and after the artificial weathering, and a statistical analysis of the mass loss between successive cycles was conducted using the exponential model suggested by Mutlutürk et alii (2004). The results revealed a decrease in all the mechanical properties evaluated for both granites, however without compromising their use as dimension stones, thus representing a new insight into the mechanical response to be considered, especially in regions affected by this decay mechanism.</p> 2023-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Isabel Borges, Cristina Dias A geochemical study of the main valleys’ waters on the left part of Mosul (Iraq) 2023-07-18T19:37:50+00:00 Iman F. Ibrahim Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey <p>Increases in population and the expansion of industrial and agricultural operations result in an increase in agricultural and industrial trash as well as residential waste that is dumped directly into rivers and streams. These pollutants typically pollute river or stream water. This study focuses on the effects of domestic, industrial, and agricultural waste water on the water quality of the five main valleys in the left part of Mosul City: Al-Rashediya, Al-Kharrazi, Al-Khosar, Al-Danffilli, and Al-Shoar. Forty-eight samples of the water from these valleys were measured in the field for their physical characteristics (pH, EC, TDS, and Tr). The chemical properties (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3-), the heavy elements (Fe, Cu, Pb, Co and Mn) and the organic maters, were analyzed. The results indicated that calcium and bicarbonate are more abundant than other cations and anions, respectively. This mainly indicates the impact of carbonate fragment contents and calcareous cementing materials in the soils that exposed to chemical weathering in the outcrops on water quality. Heavy element pollution factors {The heavy metal pollution index (HPI), Heavy metals rating index (HEL), Metal Index (MI), and Contamination Index (Cd)} generally indicated that the water in the study area is highly polluted and unsuitable for agricultural use. The amounts of pollutants in the rivers of Al-Shoar and Al-Danffilli valleys appear to be higher than those of the other valleys since these valleys are generally the most exposed to waste, especially industrial waste.</p> 2023-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iman F. Ibrahim, Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey