Fragmenta entomologica <p><strong>Fragmenta entomologica</strong> (FE) was founded in 1950 by the lepidopterist Federico Hartig (1900-1980), at that time responsible of the Italian National Institute of Entomology. FE is now property of the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (Department of Biology and Biotechnologies “C. Darwin”), and represents the scientific journal of the Zoological Museum, Sapienza University Museum Centre.<br> <strong>Fragmenta entomologica</strong> is devoted to publishing high-quality papers dealing with Arthropod biodiversity. It publishes research articles, short scientific notes, reviews articles, comments and editorials. The core scope of the journal includes Taxonomy, Systematics, Molecular phylogeny, Morphology, Paleontology, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Evolutionary biology, Conservation biology, Ecology, Ethology, and Applied Entomology, and embraces all terrestrial, freshwater, and brackish water Arthropods.</p> <p>This journal does not apply charge for publication to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> Sapienza Università Editrice en-US Fragmenta entomologica 0429-288X An overview on non-Apis bees vis-à-vis the exploration of integrated taxonomic approach (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) <p>Easy and proficient identification of species or organisms is important for various users, such as conservationists, physiologists and ecologists, etc. Taxonomy is a significant branch of biological sciences to classify the different species and understand their relationships. Currently, taxonomy’s existence is under crisis and its future protection is required in coming times. Majority of taxonomists are using phylogenetic approach for classifying different species. However, scientists believe that taxonomy should be integrative based on a comprehensive framework for delimiting and describing taxa through integrated information using various data and methodologies. This novel approach does not aim to replace the traditional taxonomy but stresses upon the delineation of species over naming new species. Integrative taxonomy defines the units of species diversity employing multiple approaches; like population genetics, phylogeography, ecology, comparative morphology, development and behaviour, etc. Disagreements among disciplines over the number and demarcation of species can be resolved by using molecular data explaining the evolutionary relationships among species. We present a comprehensive review to explore and identify various non-Apis bees and their relationships using integrated taxonomical approaches. We believe that the phylogenies and supportive data can collectively provide a comparative framework for understanding the evolutionary relationships among bee families.</p> Jyoti FALSWAL Debjani DEY Sarita KUMAR Copyright (c) 2022 Jyoti Falswal, Debjani Dey , Sarita Kumar 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 233 246 10.13133/2284-4880/703 A modern type of ant-like stone beetle larva preserved in 99-million-year-old Kachin amber <p>Scydmaeninae, the group of ant-like stone beetles, was previously named “Scydmaenidae”, but is today recognized as an ingroup of Staphylinidae. The group has a more or less global distribution and includes 4,900 formally described species. The fossil record of the group seems well studied with almost 40 formally described species so far. However, all the described fossil specimens are adults, which once again demonstrates the rarity of reports of larvae. This fact also applies for the extant counterparts: even the larvae of some modern lineages of Scydmaeninae have not been identified yet. Here we contribute to the fossil record of ant-like stone beetles with the first report of a relatively modern-appearing fossil larva. In the center of the study is a single specimen preserved in 99-million-year-old Kachin amber, Myanmar. The fossil shares multiple characteristics (for example, long and slender antennae, maxillary palps, and walking legs) with modern representatives of second stage larvae of the species Stenomastigus longicornis. This similarity indicates a closer relationship to this species, and the fossil is therefore likely a representative of the group Mastigini. In the light of the new find, we discuss phylogenetic implications and the evolution of developmental patterns within Scydmaeninae</p> Carolin HAUG Ana ZIPPEL Patrick MÜLLER Joachim HAUG Copyright (c) 2022 Carolin Haug, Ana Zippel, Patrick Müller, Joachim Haug 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 193–200 193–200 10.13133/2284-4880/706 A new taxon of the soldier beetles’ genus †Poinarelektronmiles from Burmese amber (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) <p>Poinarelektronmiles cuaroni sp. n., a new fossil species of soldier beetles from the Cretaceous Burmese amber is diagnosed and illustrated, in this document. It is characterized by the antennomeres V-IX with an extremely long antennal process, and the last antennomere is very robust. Unlike what some authors have recently proposed, and as in other genera of Cretaceous soldier beetles, the antennal processes are evidently inserted at the apex of the antennomeres, in the intersegmental zone between the apex and the base of the next antennomere.</p> Andrea BRAMANTI Fabrizio FANTI Copyright (c) 2022 Andrea BRAMANTI, Fabrizio FANTI 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 201 206 10.13133/2284-4880/1417 A new subgenus with three new species of Agrotis from New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) <p>Following the examination of museum holdings and recently collected material of noctuid moths from New Guinea, the new subgenus Papuagrotis Vink &amp; Zilli subgen. n. of Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 is described. This is found to consist of at least three montane species new to science that are herein described also, namely Agrotis (Papuagrotis) habbemae Vink &amp; Zilli sp. n., A. (P.) bintangus Vink &amp; Zilli sp. n. and A. (P.) minutus Vink &amp; Zilli sp. n. Characters and relationships of the group with respect to other Agrotis s.l. are reviewed and briefly discussed.</p> Linda VINK Rob de VOS Siep SINNEMA Jannie SINNEMA-BLOEMEN Alberto ZILLI Copyright (c) 2022 Linda VINK, Rob de VOS, Siep SINNEMA , Jannie SINNEMA-BLOEMEN, Alberto ZILLI 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 207 216 10.13133/2284-4880/1458 Rhizotrogus tedeschii, a new species from the alpine zone of the Pollino Massif, southern Italy (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae) <p>A new species of Rhizotrogus from southern Italy (Calabria, Pollino Massif) is described and illustrated. Rhizotrogus tedeschii n. sp. is a high-altitude, day-active species, very similar to R. cicatricosus, from which differs by characters of external morphology and genitalia. Images of its environment, and natural history observations are also provided. The intraspecific variation of R. cicatricosus is also briefly addressed.</p> Marco ULIANA Valerio GALLERATI Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Uliana, Valerio Gallerati 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 217–232 217–232 10.13133/2284-4880/1407 An exceptional influx and successful breeding of Pantala flavescens on the Island of Malta (Maltese Archipelago) (Odonata: Libellulidae) <p>Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) appeared in unprecedented numbers in summer and autumn 2020 on the island of Malta. Several males were observed holding territory over largely bare, small bodies of water, mostly at Chadwick Lakes and Fiddien. Breeding activity was witnessed several times and 128 exuviae were found of which 124 were collected.</p> Charles GAUCI Copyright (c) 2022 Charles Gauci 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 247–256 247–256 10.13133/2284-4880/1398 Ground beetle assemblages in six different forest ecosystems from Tuscany (Central Italy) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) <p>Forest ecosystems are an important part of the European territory. In 1994 the Regional Administration of Tuscany (Italy) promoted a monitoring program called MON.I.TO (Intensive Monitoring of forest in Toscana) in order to obtain data on the functioning of the forest ecosystem and on its response to possible sources of disturbance in this part of Italy. Although this monitoring program was mostly dedicated to botanical aspects, zoological research has found its proper place within it, and analyzing carabid coenoses provided useful information on the structural and functional characteristics of the forest. This study was performed in six different Tuscan forest ecosystems (Central Italy): 2 beech woodlands, 2 turkey oak woodlands and 2 holm oak woodlands with the aim of broadening the general knowledge of italian carabid communities and understanding the ecological, adaptive and biogeographical factors influencing their composition in different forest ecosystems. The analysis of the species richness and abundance data was carried out using non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and PERMANOVA tests) and descriptive statistic methods (n-MDS, SIMPER) applied to 22 different collected species (some of them endemic to the Italian territory) revealing that beech woodlands differed significantly from other forest types. Beech woodlands hosted carabid communities that are extremely sensitive to environmental simplification, showing a prevalence of brachypterous and predator species. In the other forest types, instead, carabid communities were composed of generalist species with high dispersal ability that were prevalent due to the effects of anthropic activities that occurred over time in these territories. Our results highlight the importance of considering community-wide functional implications in landscape ecology studies.</p> Massimo MIGLIORINI Antonio CARAPELLI Copyright (c) 2022 Massimo Migliorini, Antonio Carapelli 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 257–268 257–268 10.13133/2284-4880/724 Body pigmentation during embryogenesis first found in stoneflies: a case of Megaperlodes niger Yokoyama, Isobe & Yamamoto, 1990 (Insecta: Plecoptera, Perlodidae) <p>We examined and described the later stages of embryonic development and first instar nymphs of the stonefly Megaperlodes niger Yokoyama, Isobe &amp; Yamamoto, 1990 to document its body pigmentation during embryogenesis. Pigmentation commences at the periphery of egg tooth when the definitive dorsal closure is almost completed. Full-grown embryos have their heads pigmented dark-red, the first thoracic segment yellowish in colour, and the posterolateral margin of second and third thoracic segments slightly reddish. The colouration of first instar nymphs is almost the same as full-grown embryos, and the lateral margin of the first two abdominal segments is pigmented red. Our finding that body pigmentation occurring at M. niger embryogenesis is the first known report of plecopteran. embryos and hatchlings, contributing to further understanding of the nymphal biology of this species.</p> Shodo MTOW Tadaaki TSUTSUMI Copyright (c) 2022 Shodo MTOW, Tadaaki Tsutsumi 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 273–278 273–278 10.13133/2284-4880/705 Saproxylic weevils and edaphic beetles as indicators of environmental quality of relict forests in Piedmont lowlands <p>Saproxylic weevils and edaphic beetles of some relict forests of north-western Italy were analysed to determine the role of the age of the forests, their isolation and the degree of naturalness of the patches within each forest on the composition of litter-associated communities. Ten species of saproxylic weevils were found. The communities showed variation among the various forests, and were mainly dependent on the age of the forest and their connectivity; the degree of naturalness did not influence species richness or abundance, but apparently had an effect on some more specialized taxa that were only present in the patches with highest degree of naturalness. No saproxylic weevils were found in a relatively recently established forest, demonstrating their difficulty in colonizing newly formed habitats isolated from other forests. The edaphic beetles (usually predators belonging to Carabidae and Staphylinidae) proved to be more abundant, and were also present in the recently established forest and occurred in a quite large numbers in some deteriorated patches. Saproxylic weevils and edaphic predatory beetles thus provide different information on the environmental quality of the forests.</p> Paolo PERONE Massimo MEREGALLI Cristiana CERRATO Copyright (c) 2022 Paolo Perone, Massimo Meregalli, Cristiana Cerrato 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 54 2 283–296 283–296 10.13133/2284-4880/582 New records of Adelidae from forested habitats of Calabria (South Italy) with an update of the Italian ckecklist (Lepidoptera: Adeloidea) <p>Adelidae fauna of South Italy is poorly known. For example, the knowledge concerning this family in the Calabria region is very poor being the most recent record 107 years old. In this paper we reported original faunistic data for the Calabria region concerning eight species most of which new for the regional fauna and Nematopogon robertella (Clerck, 1759) new for the fauna of peninsular Italy. To the light of faunistic and taxonomic advances of recent years, the Italian checklist of this family was updated because of the discovery of taxa new to the science and new records that significantly modified the Italian range of some species. According to these recent additions, the Italian fauna of Adelidae is now composed by 34 species, but we found that some populations of South Italy deserve deep studies to ascertain their taxonomic status.</p> Stefano SCALERCIO Copyright (c) 2022 Stefano Scalercio 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 301–310 301–310 10.13133/2284-4880/1326 Mobilization Strategies in Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) <p>The mobilization strategies of ants have been studied quite well, but the questions of how far foragers of different species are able to move away from the nest remain unclear. The study of changes in foraging strategies depending on the type of habitat remains relevant. The aim of the work is to study mobilization strategies in 31 ant species. The study was conducted in 2019-2021 on the territory of 2 countries - Ukraine (Kyiv region and Kyiv) and Uzbekistan (Tashkent region, Tashkent). Pairs of baits (one carbohydrate and one with tuna) were laid out at a distance of 3 m from each other, in the form of transects. In total, 16 transects (417 pairs) were laid out in Ukraine in 9 types of habitats, in Uzbekistan - 5 transects (70 pairs of baits) in one type of habitats. The number of ants on each type of bait was recorded every 10 minutes, for 0-90 minutes. The distance to the nest from where the mobilization took place was also determined. It has been established that all ant species can be divided into 4 clusters according to the average distance to the nest from which foragers mobilize on the bait. Cluster 1 included 3 species of dominants, which were able to move away from the nest at a distance of up to 50 m, cluster 2 included 4 species of dominants, whose foragers could move up to a distance of 20 m. Cluster 3 included 23 species that moved away from nest at a distance of 0.2-2.0 m, cluster 4 - 1 species, foragers of it moved to a distance of up to 7 m. Preferences of bait types were noted in 15 ant species. The distance to the nest (F=9.02, p&lt;0.001) had the greatest influence on the number of ants on baits among the considered factors, followed by species of ants (F=6.75, p&lt;0.001) and habitat type (F=4.17, p&lt;0.001). In habitats where an ant species mobilizes a smaller number of foragers, they have to travel, on average, long distances to a food source. Consequently, the abundance of food resources in the habitat of ants is determined by the average distance of mobilization from the nest - the smaller it is, the more resources.</p> Stanislav STUKALYUK Copyright (c) 2022 Stanislav Stukalyuk 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 321–336 321–336 10.13133/2284-4880/1282 High winter survival rate of acorn ants inside artificial nest sites (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) <p>Although most species of ants overwinter underground to avoid low temperatures, the acorn ants of the genus <em>Temnothorax</em> remain in nests situated at ground level. During a field experiment, I studied the winter mortality of acorn ants in nest sites situated aboveground, as well as in sites experimentally buried in the soil. Despite the low air temperatures (even reaching –19°C, recorded 1.5 m above the ground), the survivorship was very high: all of the 18 queens used in the experiment survived, while the survival rate of workers was 61.9-100%, and for most colonies it exceeded 95%. The rate of survival in the nest sites aboveground and those experimentally buried in the soil was similar. Such a high survival rate in the nests situated at ground level could have resulted from the presence of snow cover during the strongest frost. The artificial nest sites used in the study provided safety for the ants; however, the real mortality during winter, e.g. connected also with predation or destruction of the nest sites, is a subject that needs further study.</p> Sławomir MITRUS Copyright (c) 2022 Sławomir Mitrus 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 269–272 269–272 10.13133/2284-4880/1399 Note on the nomenclature and generic composition of the Ichnestomina Burmeister, 1842 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) <p>On the basis of its overwhelming use in the literature over the past 100 years, it is here suggested that a reversal of precedence be applied to preserve the prevailing usage of the subtribal name “Ichnestomina” Burmeister, 1842 against the more technically correct but virtually ignored “Ichnestomatina”. As none of the key symplesiomorphic characters of the Ichnestomina type genus Ichnestoma Gory &amp; Percheron, 1833 and its related genera are shared with Paraxeloma Holm 1988, it is also proposed that this latter genus be removed from the Ichnestomina and reincorporated into the subtribe Cetoniina Leach, 1815, or alternatively into the Goliathina Griffith &amp; Pidgeon, 1832.</p> Renzo PERISSINOTTO Copyright (c) 2022 Renzo Perissinotto 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 279–282 279–282 10.13133/2284-4880/704 Apomyelois bistriatella new to Italy from “Tenuta Presidenziale di Castelporziano” (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) <p>Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst, 1887) was found for the first time in Italy (Latium).</p> Manuela PINZARI Sauro GIANNERINI Mario PINZARI Copyright (c) 2022 Manuela Pinzari 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 297–300 297–300 10.13133/2284-4880/1327 Update on aspects of ethoecology for the exceedingly restricted and most outstanding Italian endemic moth, Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea) europaea Hartig (Lepidoptera: Brahmaeidae) <p>Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea) europaea Hartig, 1963, is an Italian endemic species exhibiting a very restricted geographic distribution (Basilicata and Campania regions, Grotticelle di Monticchio Nature Reserve and neighbouring areas), and with a few Oleaceae (Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa, Ligustrum vulgare and Phyllirea latifolia) as host plants. Before 1997 only adult moths were collected with artificial light. After 1997, egg clusters and larvae were located, inside and outside the Reserve, so allowing to investigate the specific habitat preference, conservation status and survival of B. europaea in order to draw up strategies for the conservation of this species. The comparison of the egg clusters found 2014-2017, has revealed interesting common characteristics even if the preliminary conditions need to be confirmed by further studies. During the spring of the 2021, the discovery of another egg cluster allowed amplified and further defined what emerged from the researches at date on some aspects of ethology and ecology of the moth.</p> Renato SPICCIARELLI Copyright (c) 2022 Renato SPICCIARELLI 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 311–314 311–314 10.13133/2284-4880/1387 First Italian records of the rare minute tree-fungus beetle Cisarthron laevicolle (Coleoptera: Ciidae) <p>The rare South-European beetle Cisarthron laevicolle Reitter, 1885 is here reported for the first time from Italy. The currently known distribution, ecology and phenology of this species are briefly discussed.</p> Alessandro BISCACCIANTI Enrica GIULIANO GRIMALDI Paolo AUDISIO Copyright (c) 2022 Alessandro Biscaccianti, Enrica Giuliano Grimaldi, Paolo Audisio 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 315 316 10.13133/2284-4880/1457 Severe attacks caused by Macrolenes dentipes (Olivier) on Feijoa, Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret (Myrtaceae) in Italy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) <p>During recent surveys of tropical fruit plants in Southern Italy, severe infestations were observed on young vegetation of Feijoa, Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret inflicted by the leaf beetle Macrolenes dentipes (Olivier, 1808) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) which occurs in the Mediterranean area. Feijoa is a species that belongs to the Myrtaceae family and bears an edible interesting fruit. From 2016 we observed adults of M. dentipes feeding on Acca sellowiana leaves in orchards located in the Calabria and Sicily regions. We identified the phenological stages of Feijoa leaves in 12 trees according to the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. M. dentipes feeds on young leaves (BBCH scale: principal stage 1, substages 10-17). Its adult life cycle on feijoa trees lasts from early June until the end of flowering in late June (BBCH scale: principal growth 7, substage 65) and when the fruits begin to develop (BBCH scale: principal stage 7, substage 70). Details on the current distribution, host plants, biological<br />traits, and natural enemies are given for M. dentipes.</p> Thomas VATRANO Milena PETRICCIONE Silvia DI SILVESTRO Salvatore BELLA Copyright (c) 2022 Salvatore Bella 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 54 2 317–320 317–320 10.13133/2284-4880/549