Fragmenta entomologica <p><strong>Fragmenta entomologica</strong> (FE) was founded in 1950 by the lepidopterist Federico Hartig (1900-1980), at that time responsible of the Italian National Institute of Entomology. FE is now property of the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (Department of Biology and Biotechnologies “C. Darwin”), and represents the scientific journal of the Zoological Museum, Sapienza University Museum Centre.<br> <strong>Fragmenta entomologica</strong> is devoted to publishing high-quality papers dealing with Arthropod biodiversity. It publishes research articles, short scientific notes, reviews articles, comments and editorials. The core scope of the journal includes Taxonomy, Systematics, Molecular phylogeny, Morphology, Paleontology, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Evolutionary biology, Conservation biology, Ecology, Ethology, and Applied Entomology, and embraces all terrestrial, freshwater, and brackish water Arthropods.</p> <p>This journal does not apply charge for publication to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> Sapienza Università Editrice en-US Fragmenta entomologica 0429-288X The Ceratocanthinae of Madagascar and Comoro Islands: a revision of the genera Synarmostes and Goudotostes, and of the flightless Philharmostes, with description of 64 new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Hybosoridae) <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea Hybosoridae) genera <em>Synarmostes</em> Germar, 1843 <em>Goudotostes</em> Paulian, 1979, and <em>Philharmostes</em> Kolbe, 1895 (partim) are revised. The genera <em>Synarmostes</em> and <em>Goudotostes</em>, endemic to Madagascar and Comoro Islands, score respectively 24 species, 18 occurring in Madagascar and six in the Comoro Islands (20 of them new to science: <em>Synarmostes aes</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes annamariae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes beankae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes benaraensis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes bekaraokae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes caterinae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes chonguimontis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes compactus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes dapaniensis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes eugenii</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes fortis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes grinteri</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>,&nbsp; <em>Synarmostes karthalaensis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes lavasoae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes makirovanae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes monoculus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes occidentalis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes parrilloi</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Synarmostes separatus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, and <em>Synarmostes zahamenae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>) and 33 species, two of them occurring in the Comoro Islands and the remaining in Madagascar (32 of them new to science: <em>Goudotostes andohahelae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes andreonei</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes angelii</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes antsahabensis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes electrimontis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes elegans </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes fisheri </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes hirtellus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes insularis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes laevis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes lapidisilvae </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes litoralis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes lokobensis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes mayottensis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes masoalae</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes montanellus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes orangeanus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes parvus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes phantasticus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes pittinoi </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes rafanomezantsoai</em><strong>&nbsp; </strong><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes rajemisonae </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes rakotonirinai </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes &nbsp;ramamonjisoae </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes ranaivoi </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes randrianirinai </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes rasoamananae </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes rugatulus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes siccaesilvae </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes similis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Goudotostes simplicipennis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, and <em>Goudotostes trapeticollis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>). Finally, the genus <em>Philharmostes</em>, shared with Continental Africa but absent from Comoro Islands, is here revised only partly. Only the 12 flightless species occurring in Madagascar are revised, all them endemic and new to science (<em>Philharmostes acutus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes apterus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes centralis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes fereocellatus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes indri </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes manomboensis </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes metallicus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes nelsoni </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes ornatulus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes rotundatus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>Philharmostes scapulatus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, and <em>Philharmostes schweikerti</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>). The volant species of <em>Philharmostes </em>will be the subject of a future paper. With the new species here described Madagascar scores a total of 81 species of Ceratocanthinae, all them endemic, becoming the richest country in the world with respect to Ceratocanthinae diversity. The majority of the Ceratocanthinae species dealt with this paper are flightless (65 on a total of 69). All species have been found in forested habitats, the majority of them (53 species) in rainforests and 17 species in dry deciduous forests. Three species have been found in nests of <em>Nasutitermes</em> sp. (Isoptera). Some remarks on eye development are provided. In some species of all the genera it is hypothesized the presence of a vestigial dorsal ocular area. A key to all species, distribution maps and photos of the habitus and the male genitalia of all species are provided.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alberto Ballerio Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 105 282 10.13133/2284-4880/545 Phylogenetic placement of a new paleoendemic pill scarab (Coleoptera: Hybosoridae: Ceratocanthinae) from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, triggers biogeographic interpretations <p>A new pill scarab with peculiar carinate apical halves of the elytra, <em>Balleriodes sphaera</em> <strong>gen. et sp. nov.</strong>, is described and illustrated from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. A phylogenetic analysis of 73 terminals and 3118 aligned positions from three DNA fragments placed <em>Balleriodes</em> within a newly recognized and strongly supported clade herein informally named the <em>Synarmostes</em> group. The group includes three monophyletic species-rich genera: African <em>Melanophilharmostes</em> and <em>Pseudopterorthochaetes</em>, as well as <em>Synarmostes</em> from Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. The discovery of the monotypic genus <em>Balleriodes</em> <strong>gen. nov. </strong>in Udzungwa highlights the importance of the ancient and exceptionally biodiverse chain of the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania and Kenya. Three cases of overseas dispersal by the members of the <em>Synarmostes</em> group are hypothesized: Africa to Madagascar, Madagascar to Comoros, and Africa to Annobón. Preliminary biogeographical interpretation of the increasingly more resolved pantropical subfamily Ceratocanthinae is presented.</p> Vasily Grebennikov Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 283 298 10.13133/2284-4880/547 A new hypothesis on the evolution of the hybosorid beetle capacity to conglobate their bodies into a tight ball (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) <p><br>Although best known for the capacity to fully conglobate their bodies into a "perfect" spheroid, a few Ceratocanthinae (=pill scarabs; Coleoptera: Hybosoridae) have drastically different body architecture. Six South American species, or 1.5% of species diversity, have straight bodies incapable of any conglobation, while some 20% of species can achieve only incomplete body conglobation with legs and abdomen partly exposed. Historically, both latter character states were considered as ancestral and transitional, respectively, in the irreversible evolutionary "progression" towards full-body conglobation. Here we use molecular sequence data to hypothesize a new clade uniting all bodily straight and incompletely conglobate pill scarabs. Significantly, this clade is nested within a clade otherwise consisting of species capable of full-body conglobation. This topology implies that the most recent common ancestor of all pill scarabs had a capacity of full-body conglobation. Consequently, we re-interpret the pill scarab straight and partly conglobate body architectures as secondary reversals to the ancestral condition from the fully conglobate state. If so, the tribe Ceratocanthini uniting 98% of pill scarab species is rendered paraphyletic by two remaining and much smaller South American tribes, Ivieolini and Scarabatermitini. The latter contains three and five rare species, respectively, all of them supposedly termitophilous and all herein illustrated.</p> Vasily V. Grebennikov Andrew B.T. Smith Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 299 310 10.13133/2284-4880/570 Description of the larva of Zwicknia gattolliati Vinçon & Reding, 2018, with notes on the distribution of the genus Zwicknia Murányi, 2014 in Italy (Plecoptera: Capniidae) <p>The specimens of the genus <em>Zwicknia</em> Murányi, 2014 from the Ravizza collection stored in the Museum of Zoology, Lausanne, Switzerland, are revised and re-identified to species level. Whereas most of them were identified as belonging to the species <em>Zwicknia gattolliati</em>, one male collected in Southern Italy corresponded to <em>Z. bifrons</em>. The hitherto unknown larva of <em>Zwicknia gattolliati</em> is described and illustrated on the basis of morphology.</p> Jean-Paul G. Reding Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 315 320 10.13133/2284-4880/563 New records and interesting data for the Sardinian spider fauna (Arachnida: Araneae) <p>We present new distributional data of 24 spider species in Sardinia, including 7 endemic and 1 poorly recorded species. Sixteen species from 7 families and six species from 2 families are recorded for the first time in Sardinia and Italy, respectively. Among these, the reported presence of Cepheia longiseta and five other species allows us to include the Synaphridae family and five genera (Anagraphis, Hahnia, Minyriolus, Thaumatoncus, Trabea) in the Sardinian spider checklist, and two genera (Anagraphis and Thaumatoncus) in the Italian spider checklist. Relevant faunistic and distribution notes of poorly collected species are also provided.</p> Michele Caria Paolo Pantini Federico Alamanni Cesare Ancona Davide Cillo Erika Bazzato Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 321 332 10.13133/2284-4880/555 The bee genus Pseudoanthidium: revision of the subgenus Exanthidium with the description of a new species (Apoidea: Megachilidae) <p><em>Exanthidium</em> Pasteels, 1969 is today recognised as a subgenus of the genus <em>Pseudoanthidium</em> which comprises a small number of little-known species distributed between the Atlantic coast and Central Asia. The taxonomic status is reviewed and the members of the subgenus are here presented for the first time with photographs and line drawings illustrating the specific distinguishing characters. An identification key and distribution maps are given. A new species, <em>Pseudoanthidium (Exanthidium) deserticolum</em> <strong>sp. n.</strong> is described from Saudi Arabia. It is close to <em>P. (E.) wahrmanicum</em> which is found in the southern Levant and the Algerian Sahara.</p> Max Kasparek Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 333 346 10.13133/2284-4880/525 Chronology of the worldwide spread of a parthenogenetic beetle, Reesa vespulae (Milliron, 1939) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) <p><em>Reesa vespulae</em> (Milliron, 1939) is a parthenogenetic synanthropic subcosmopolitan dermestid pest native to the Nearctic region. The chronology (1942–2020) of its spread outside its native range, its general distribution and ecology are summarized and discussed. Its spread is likely to be the result of multiple introductions into the different zoogeographic regions, and secondary translocations therein; the oldest records from outside its native range are: 1942 (Australian region), 1946 (Neotropical region), 1957–1958 (Palaearctic region) and 1986–2010 (Oriental region). Reesa vespulae is excluded from the Afrotropical fauna, since the sole available record was based on a misidentification, while it is recorded from central Italy for the first time, moreover its oldest Algerian and Austrian records are provided. The need for preventive measures against dermestid infestations in natural history collections is highlighted.</p> Gianluca Nardi Jiří Hava Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 347 356 10.13133/2284-4880/564 Lophorrhina garnieri, a new fruit chafer species from north-eastern Uganda (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) <p>A new species of <em>Lophorrhina</em> Westwood, 1842, <em>L. garnieri</em> sp. nov., was recently discovered in the Labwor Hills range of north-eastern Uganda and is here described. It differs substantially from its closest relative, <em>L. pentachordia</em> (Klug, 1835), particularly at the level of male clypeus but also in the aedeagal parameres, which show an expanded apical surface with lateral projections. In the male of the new species, the clypeus exhibits a smaller apical horn and a narrow and elongate frontal horn, which actually takes the shape of a tapering ridge, rather than a true laminar horn, as is the case in the male <em>L. pentachordia</em>. Other major differences between the two species are manifested in the much more extensive light-yellow ornamentation that characterises the dorsal habitus of <em>L. garnieri</em> in comparison to <em>L. prentachordia</em> and the less protruding and angulate, rather than round, mesometasternal process exhibited by the new species. The female of <em>L. garnieri</em> remains unfortunately unknown. It is likely that the new species represents an isolated population that has remained separated from its relatives through events related to the formation of the East African Great Rift System and for a period long enough to result in speciation. The distribution of the species could potentially include partially connected ranges in western Kenya and South Sudan. In the process of investigating the relationship between this new species and its closest relative, it has also emerged that little information is currently available on the distribution range and biology/ecology of <em>L. pentachordia</em>. A comprehensive data record on its distribution range and period of activity is, therefore, provided here, along with basic information on its habitat preferences, adult diet and response to trapping methods.</p> Renzo Perissinotto Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 357 366 10.13133/2284-4880/523 Description of a new species of Anoplocheilus MacLeay, 1838 from South Africa, with review of the genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) <p>A new species of <em>Anoplocheilus</em> (<em>Anoplocheilus</em>) MacLeay, 1838 closely related to <em>A.</em> (<em>A.</em>) <em>rusticus</em> (Gory &amp; Percheron, 1833) is hereby described from freshly collected and revisited old material. Unlike its sister species, which is restricted to the west and south coastal regions of South Africa, the new species occurs inland, above the Great Escarpment and in adjacent mountain ranges of the Cape Fold Belt. The recently erected subgenus <em>Nselenius</em> Holm &amp; Perissinotto, 2004, is here elevated to full genus, given the rather unique features of the only species currently known, <em>N. silvicola</em> stat. nov., and its closest proximity to <em>Lamellothyrea</em> Krikken, 1980, rather than <em>Anoplocheilus</em> s. str. Furthermore, another species also allocated originally to <em>Anoplocheilus</em> with great reservation by the original authors themselves, is now transferred to the genus <em>Diphrontis</em>, as <em>D. matilei</em> (Antoine &amp; Lequeux, 2001) comb. nov., since it shares most external and aedeagal key characters with species belonging to that genus.</p> Renzo Perissinotto Gerhard Beinhundner Werner Strümpher Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 367 376 10.13133/2284-4880/567 Review of Eudyasmus, with descriptions of a new species from Waigeo Island, Indonesia and a closely related new genus (Curculionidae: Molytinae: Eudyasmini) <p>Eudyasmus Pascoe, 1885 (Curculionidae: Molytinae: Eudyasmini), an endemic weevil genus from New Guinea, is reviewed. The genus is redescribed, all previously described species are diagnosed, and lectotypes are designated for three species. Prior to this study, Eudyasmus was only known from Papua New Guinea but is reported here for the first time from the Indonesian part of New Guinea based on the description of Eudyasmus basalis Pancini &amp; Bramanti sp. nov. from Waigeo Island, West Papua Province. A new genus, Protrachyasmus Setliff gen. nov., is described to accommodate Eudyasmus planidorsis Heller, which is non-congeneric with the four remaining Eudyasmus species. A species level identification key, distribution map, and illustrations are provided for all species of these two closely related genera.</p> Gregory Setliff Lorenzo Pancini Andrea Bramanti Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 377 390 10.13133/2284-4880/542 The sumatrana species group of the genus Platyja with descriptions of four new species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) <p>It is shown that under the old concept of <em>Platyja cyanocraspis</em> Hampson, 1922 at least six species are intermingled, including two sympatric sibling ones from New Guinea. Four such species are new to science and are herein described, namely <em>Platyja subtracta</em> sp. n. (New Guinea), <em>P. togutila</em> sp. n. (Halmahera), <em>P. vityaz</em> sp. n. (Bismarck Archipelago) and <em>P. yaleyambae</em> sp. n. (Louisiades), while a fifth one from Buru and Ceram is upgraded from subspecific status as <em>P. lecerfi</em> A.E. Prout, 1922 stat. n. A singleton from New Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) closely albeit not entirely matching <em>P. vityaz</em> is also discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alberto Zilli Rob De Vos Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 391 410 10.13133/2284-4880/569 A social beauty: distribution, ecology and conservation of Iris oratoria in the Central Mediterranean Region <p>The distribution and knowledge on the Mediterranean mantid <em>Iris oratoria </em>(Linnaeus, 1785) is here updated. Despite is beautiful appearance and presence in the social media, the scientific knowledge on its real distribution is poor and incomplete and this may affect its conservation at local scales. Citizen science records have been here compared with traditional science records, here updated with many new and original localities: this species is reported for the first time for Libya, Malta, Calabria and many Mediterranean islands and islets. The ecological preferences have been investigated in a retrodunal transect to investigate the preferred vegetation patterns for this species. The general value of citizen science records in evaluating the real distribution of a species have been tested here, using <em>Iris oratoria</em> as a case study for further investigations.</p> Roberto Battiston Elvira Castiglione William Di Pietro Stefano Lazzaretti Francesco Manti Arnold Sciberras Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 413 418 10.13133/2284-4880/522 Issue summary of Vol. 53 (2021), n. 2 Paolo Audisio Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 First record of Onthophagus (Furconthophagus) sellatus Klug, 1845 for Europe (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Onthophagini) <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #202124;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en"><em>Onthophagus (Furconthophagus) sellatus</em></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #202124;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en"> Klug, 1845 (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Onthophagini) is recorded for the first time for Europe based on specimens collected in the south-western coastal area of Sicily (Siracusa province). This is a species with wide distribution encompassing the north-eastern portion of Northern Africa,Middle East and Arabian peninsula and a great portion of the Afrotropical region. </span></span></span></span></p> Daniel Patacchiola Fabrizio Fabbriciani Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta Entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 311 314 10.13133/2284-4880/544 Chorthippus bornhalmi new to Lebanon and Jordan, and Eremippus persicus new to Jordan (Orthoptera: Acrididae) <p>The author reports for the first time the presence of <em>Chorthippus</em> (<em>Glyptobothrus</em>) <em>bornhalmi</em> Harz, 1971 in Jordan and Lebanon, and <em>Eremippus persicus</em> Uvarov, 1929 in Jordan.</p> Bruno Massa Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 411 412 10.13133/2284-4880/558 Amnestus pusillus Uhler, 1876 new to Europe found in Italy (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) <p>Specimens of <em>Amnestus pusillus</em> were collected in Veneto, Italy, at light. The species is of American origin and has been recorded previously out of its areal, in Iran and the Asian portion of Turkey. The present record is the first for Europe.</p> Paride Dioli Ernesto Pascotto Marco Uliana Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 419 422 10.13133/2284-4880/535 First records of Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 in the Maltese islands (Odonata: Libellulidae) <p>In this contribution the author reports the first sightings of Trithemis kirbyi, Selys, 1891 in the Maltese islands.&nbsp; Two single males were found at Imselliet Valley and Chadwick Lakes on 17 May 2020 and 13 Aug 2020 respectively.</p> Charles Gauci Copyright (c) 2021 Fragmenta entomologica 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 53 2 423 426 10.13133/2284-4880/476