Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences <p>ORGANISMS is an open access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing articles of the highest quality pertaining to the fields of basic, translational, theoretical and clinical research.</p> <p><strong><em>FOREWORD</em></strong></p> <p><em>“He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he is going”.</em> <br />(Leonardo da Vinci)</p> <p>At the beginning of the 21st century, biology is facing an epistemological crisis which anticipates a paradigm change. Reductionism and the molecular analysis it favors have failed to bring about an understanding of complex phenomena in biology. <strong><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a title="Foreword" href="" target="_self">read more</a></span></em></strong></p> <p><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong> </strong></span></em></p> <p><strong><em>NEW CALL<br /></em></strong></p> <p>The impact of publications in the sciences at large and in biology in particular is subject to a number of variables that depend on whether they are noticed, evaluated and/or interpreted correctly, or just ignored. Perhaps Gregor Mendel’s paper in 1865 is the most dramatic example of such an outcome. It was only 35 years later that its significance was “rediscovered”. <strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><a title="Announcement" href="" target="_self">read more</a></em></span></strong></p> en-US <h4>Copyright Agreement with Authors</h4><p>Before publication, after the acceptance of the manuscript, authors have to sign a <strong><a href="">Publication Agreement</a></strong> with <em><strong>Organisms</strong></em>. The authors retain all rights to the original work without any restrictions.</p><h4>License for Published Contents</h4><p><img src="" alt="Licenza Creative Commons" /><br />You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, and to adapt the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).</p><p><a href="">Licence scheme</a> | <a href="">Legal code</a></p> (Editorial Board) (Editorial Board) Thu, 30 Dec 2021 13:30:57 +0000 OJS 60 Upper Limb Structural Anatomic Mechanisms of Protection (SAMPs) <p><strong>Introduction </strong>Nature has provided living bodies with extraordinary active reparative mechanisms. Besides these biological processes anatomical structures are designed to protect life against external injuries. A series of these protective systems in the upper limb are described. <strong>Material and Methods </strong>From 2009 to 2017, 864 fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs have been dissected from the axilla to the fingers into the program of the Italian Hand Society surgical anatomy dissection course. <strong>Results </strong>Arrangement of anatomical structures in the upper limb is proven to protect major life supporting organs. <strong>Conclusions </strong>External injuries affecting the upper limb may cause damage to many important structures with severe consequences on function. The layout of these structures and the relations within them is organized to preserve life at any functional cost.</p> Giulia Ricci, Luciana Marzella, Rocco De Vitis, Pasquale Gravina, Francesco De Francesco Copyright (c) 2021 Giulia Ricci, Luciana Marzella, Rocco De Vitis, Pasquale Gravina, Francesco De Francesco Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000