The Human Typology: at the Origin of the Italian School


  • Raffaele A. Bernabeo Chair of the History of Medicine - University of Bologna
  • Bianca Rosa D'Este Teaching of History of Physical Education and Sports - ISEF Padova


Constitution , Italian School, Medicine , History


Figurative arts were the first supporters of typology inequalities. In fact in every time artists felt the need of looking for a system of measures fit for reproducing the armony of the human body as a "whole". Doctors generally neglected the anthropomorphic logic till modern times, mostly limiting themselves to the relationship among the various parts. Only later Quetelet fixed the first law, which allowed the consideration for the human kind unity. Starting from this principle a lot of Schools developped at the end of the 20th Century: they dicated a great variety of typologie classifications. In Italy it was De Giovanni who come to the definition of "constitutional medicine", and later Viola and Pende referred to it. So some categories of individuals (byotipes) were outlined from the most tender years. This method proved to be indispensable, among other things, both to appreciate everybody's sporting bent and to start people in an athletic training, and to discover the causes of the symptoms of the desease -typical of growth- and to interfere on them in a prophylatic way, by means of fitting physical exercises too.