An Example of aquifer heterogeneity simulation to modeling well-head protection areas X
Keywords:Well-Head Protection Area, transition probability, groundwater numerical modeling, automatic calibration, middle Venetian Plain
Groundwater management requires the definition of Well-Head Protection Areas (WHPA) for water supply wells. Italian law uses geometrical, chronological and hydrogeological criteria for WHPA identification, providing a groundwater travel time of 60 days for the definition of the Zone of Travel (ZOT). An exhaustive ZOT delineation must involve numerical modeling of groundwater flow together with simulation of the advective component of the transport process. In this context, the spatial variability of hydrogeological and transport parameters has to be critically estimated during numerical modeling implementation. In the present article, geostatistical simulation using a transition probability approach and groundwater numerical modeling were performed to delineate WHPAs for several supply wells in the middle Venetian Plain, taking into account the lithologic heterogeneity of the aquifer. The transition probability approach for the lithologic data was developed by T-PROGS software, while MODDLOW-2005 and PEST-ASP were used, respectively, to reproduce and calibrate site-specific hydraulic head data. Finally, a backward particle tracking analysis was performed with MODPATH to outline the 60-day ZOT.
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