State-of-art and remarks on some open questions about dsgsds: hints from a review of the scientific literature on related topics
Keywords:DSGSDs, sackung (sagging), classification, nomenclature, kinematics, morphological features, rock mass rheology, creep
Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) are complex, slope-scale, gravity-driven phenomena, which are placed between landslide movements s.s. and gravitational tectonics. These processes, which develop over very long time periods, are considerably relevant both for the remarkable influence on the evolution of hillslope morphology and for risk associated with the induced deformations and the possible evolution into catastrophic landslides. A large number of studies on DSGSDs was produced in the scientific literature; the lack of a widely recognized classification, together with the great variability of shapes and characteristics, have led to the development of numerous terminologies and definitions, which make the approach to these phenomena particularly complex. Despite this, it is possible to identify some fundamental characteristics, both in terms of kinematic mechanisms and induced morphological elements and of controlling factors and possible evolution. In more recent years, some studies highlighted the relevance of the elevated spatial and temporal scales that feature DSGSDs, with specific reference to the time-dependent rheology regulating the deformation of rock masses as a prominent distinctive feature of such processes. This study describes the current state of the art, starting from both the numerous works present in the literature and specialized review articles aimed at individual aspects of these phenomena. The work is developed in order to describe both the history of scientific progress in this field and all the main aspects that characterize the phenomena in question, both in terms of intrinsic characteristics and in relation to the control factors and possible evolution. Through the analyzes of literature data, indications are given on the space-time scale and on the characteristics that allow to distinguish DSGSDs from other gravitational phenomena.
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