Community Development on Renewable Energy Literacy by Symbiosis Bioenergy Model

Case Study: Manado City, Indonesia


  • Alicia Sinsuw Sam Ratulangi University
  • Sangkertadi Sam Ratulangi University
  • Hendrik Suryo Suriandjo
  • Liny Anna Maria Tambajong
  • Ivana Marcia Florence
  • Oktovian Berty Alexander Sompie Sam Ratulangi University


Parole chiave:

simbiosi bioenergetica, alfabetizzazione energetica ed empowerment comunitario, isole minori


Indonesia, an expansive archipelago of 17,000 islands spanning 1.9 million km², faces a population of 267 million people spread across its diverse regions. As per Government Regulation No. 79 of 2014, Indonesia aims for a renewable energy mix of 23% by 2025 and 31% by 2050. Despite abundant renewable energy potential, such as biogas, there's a need for innovative approaches to meet these targets. The Symnery model, introduced in Manado City in 2018, involves a two-stage biogas production pilot plant utilizing slaughterhouse wastewater and agricultural waste. This model brings social, economic, and environmental benefits to rural communities, offering employment, training, and additional income. Energy literacy, crucial for understanding and managing energy complexities, is enhanced through the model. The government, adopting the two-stage symbiosis bioenergy model, simplified it for small islands around Manado city, distributing 18 units with local materials. Local training programs focus on knowledge transfer, monitoring, and demonstrating biogas advantages, aiming to improve living standards, promote cleaner environments, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Manado City by 6.29% in 2022-2023.

Riferimenti bibliografici

BPBD (2014). Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah, Manado.

National T.S.J.D.E. (2019). «Indonesia energy outlook 2019». J. Chem. Inf. Model, 53(9): 1689-1699.

Rewah F. (2022). «Community Participation in Reducing the Risk of Flood Disaster in Tuminting District Manado City». SHS Web of Conferences. EDP Sciences.

Budzianowski W.M. (2012). «Sustainable biogas energy in Poland: Prospects and challenges». Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1): 342-349.

Ban P., Syariffudin J. (2005). «Penggunaan Kayu Bakar Untuk Rumah Tangga Di Desa Sekitar Taman Hutan Raya Rajolelo Bengkulu». Jurnal AGRISEP: Kajian Masalah Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian dan Agribisnis: 33-41.

Roubík H., Mazancová J., Heller T., Brunerová A., Herák D. (2016). «Biogas as a promising energy source for Sumatra». 6th International Conference on Trends in Agricultural Engineering, pp. 537-544.

Yasar A., Nazir S., Tabinda A.B., Nazar M., Rasheed R., Afzaal M. (2017). «Socio-economic, health and agriculture benefits of rural household biogas plants in energy scarce developing countries: A case study from Pakistan». Renewable Energy, 108(C): 19-25.

Sinsuw A.A.E., Wuisang C.E., Chu C.-Y. (2021). «Assessment of environmental and social impacts on rural community by two-stage biogas production pilot plant from slaughterhouse wastewater». Journal of Water Process Engineering, 40: 101796.

Sinsuw A.A.E., Chen T. H., Dokmaingam P., Suriandjo H.S., Chu C.Y. (2023). «Life cycle assessment of environmental impacts for two-stage anaerobic biogas plant between commercial and pilot scales». International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 52(A): 58-70.

He S., Blasch J., van Beukering P., Wang J. (2022). «Energy labels and heuristic decision-making: The role of cognition and energy literacy». Energy Economics, 114: 106279.

Bruce B.C., Hogan M.P. (2019). «The disappearance of technology: Toward an ecological model of literacy». In: Lutkewitte C., Writing in a Technological World. New York: Routledge, pp. 191-207.

Martins A., Madaleno M., Dias M.F. (2020). «Energy literacy: What is out there to know?». Energy Reports, 6: 454-459.

Bhattacharyya S.C. (2019). Energy economics: concepts, issues, markets and governance. Springer Nature.

Sovacool B.K., Axsen J., Sorrell S. (2018). «Promoting novelty, rigor, and style in energy social science: Towards codes of practice for appropriate methods and research design». Energy research & Social Science, 45: 12-42.

Reddy P., Sharma B., Chaudhary K. (2022). «Digital literacy: a review in the South Pacific». Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 34(1): 83-108.

Nordahl S.L., Devkota J.P., Amirebrahimi J., Smith S.J., Breunig H.M., Preble C.V., Satchwell A.J., Jin L., Brown N.J., Kirchstetter T.W., Scown C.D. (2020). «Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and human health trade-offs of organic waste management strategies». Environmental science & technology, 54(15): 9200-9209.

Kabeyi M.J.B., Olanrewaju O.A. (2022). «Biogas production and applications in the sustainable energy transition». Journal of Energy : 1-43.

Abanades S., Abbaspour H., Ahmadi A., Das B., Ehyaei M.A., Esmaeilion F., El Haj Assad M., Hajilounezhad T., Jamali D.H., Hmida A., Ozgoli H.A., Safari S., AlShabi M., Bani‑Hani E.H. (2021). «A critical review of biogas production and usage with legislations framework across the globe». International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 19:3377–3400.

Lee M.E., Steiman M.W., Angelo S.K.S. (2021). «Biogas digestate as a renewable fertilizer: Effects of digestate application on crop growth and nutrient composition». Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 36(2): 173-181.

Akbay H.E.G., Dizge N., Kumbur H. (2021). «Enhancing biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of industrial waste and municipal sewage sludge with mechanical, chemical, thermal, and hybrid pretreatment». Bioresource Technology, 340: 125688.

Sinsel S.R., Riemke R.L., Hoffmann V.H. (2020). «Challenges and solution technologies for the integration of variable renewable energy sources—a review». Renewable Energy, 145: 2271-2285.

Gustafsson M., Anderberg S. (2022). «Biogas policies and production development in Europe: A comparative analysis of eight countries». Biofuels, 13(8): 931-944.

Likert R. (1932). «A technique for the measurement of attitudes». Archives of psychology, 140(22): 5-55.

Santos J.R.A. (1999). «Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales». Journal of extension, 37(2): 1-5.

Katuwal H., Bohara A.K. (2019). «Biogas: A promising renewable technology and its impact on rural households in Nepal». Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 13(9): 2668-2674.

Distribution of affordable biogas unit to small islands.




Come citare

Sinsuw, A., Sangkertadi, Suriandjo, H. S., Tambajong, L. A. M., Florence, I. M., & Sompie, O. B. A. (2023). Community Development on Renewable Energy Literacy by Symbiosis Bioenergy Model : Case Study: Manado City, Indonesia. Tracce Urbane. Rivista Italiana Transdisciplinare Di Studi Urbani, 10(14), 214–239.