About the Journal
ORGANISMS is an open access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing articles of the highest quality pertaining to the fields of basic, translational, theoretical and clinical research.
“He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he is going”.
(Leonardo da Vinci)
At the beginning of the 21st century, biology is facing an epistemological crisis which anticipates a paradigm change. Reductionism and the molecular analysis it favors have failed to bring about an understanding of complex phenomena in biology. read more
The impact of publications in the sciences at large and in biology in particular is subject to a number of variables that depend on whether they are noticed, evaluated and/or interpreted correctly, or just ignored. Perhaps Gregor Mendel’s paper in 1865 is the most dramatic example of such an outcome. It was only 35 years later that its significance was “rediscovered”. read more
Introduction Nature has provided living bodies with extraordinarily effective reparative mechanisms. Furthermore, the biological processes involved in anatomical structures are designed to protect life against external injuries. A series of these protective systems in the upper limb are herein described. Material and Methods From 2009 to 2017, 864 fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs were dissected from the axilla to the fingers during the Italian Hand Society surgical anatomy dissection course. Results Arrangement of anatomical structures in the upper limb is able to protect major life supporting organs. Conclusions External injuries affecting the upper limb may cause damage to many important structures resulting in severe functional impairments. The layout of the structures and the relationship between them are organized to preserve life at any functional cost.