Upper Limb Structural Anatomic Mechanisms of Protection (SAMPs)


  • Giulia Ricci Universita' degli studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
  • Luciana Marzella
  • Rocco De Vitis
  • Pasquale Gravina
  • Francesco De Francesco




Introduction Nature has provided living bodies with extraordinary active reparative mechanisms. Besides these biological processes anatomical structures are designed to protect life against external injuries. A series of these protective systems in the upper limb are described. Material and Methods From 2009 to 2017, 864 fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs have been dissected from the axilla to the fingers into the program of the Italian Hand Society surgical anatomy dissection course. Results Arrangement of anatomical structures in the upper limb is proven to protect major life supporting organs. Conclusions External injuries affecting the upper limb may cause damage to many important structures with severe consequences on function. The layout of these structures and the relations within them is organized to preserve life at any functional cost.




How to Cite

Ricci, G., Marzella, L. ., De Vitis, R., Gravina, P., & De Francesco, F. (2021). Upper Limb Structural Anatomic Mechanisms of Protection (SAMPs). Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.13133/2532-5876/17506