Victimization: Child's characteristics, parenting practices, and peer relationships. A mixed methods study

Victimization: A mixed methods study.


  • Louiza Ioannidou Frederick University
  • Maria Zafiropoulou Frederick University Cyprus



victimization, quantitative phase, qualitative phase, mixed methodology, child's characteristics, parenting practices, peer relationships


The present study aimed to investigate the role of children’s characteristics, parenting practices, and peer relationships in school victimization. The research employed a mixed methodology. The quantitative phase of the research included 374 children and their parents. The children completed the Revised Olweus Bullying and Victimization Questionnaire, the Behavioral Inhibition Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Social Acceptance Scale. The qualitative phase of the research included eight children, who were randomly selected from the quantitative phase. Data in this phase were collected through a focus group. The results of the quantitative phase showed that victimization is positively predicted by behavioral inhibition, while it is negatively predicted by maternal and paternal care, and peer relationships. The results of the qualitative phase were consistent with the results of the quantitative phase. In addition, new characteristics and concepts emerged from the qualitative data, such as the victim’s characteristics (low self-esteem, inability to support oneself and express one’s opinion, low success, victim diversity). Therefore, a complex and comprehensive profile of school victims was developed through the mixed methodology, which includes the child's behaviors and characteristics and parental and social factors. The research results are useful for designing prevention and intervention programs related to children and adolescents' psycho-emotional empowerment.

Author Biography

Maria Zafiropoulou, Frederick University Cyprus

Emeritus Professor

Department of Psychology and Social Sciences

Frederick University


Additional Files



How to Cite

Ioannidou, L., & Zafiropoulou, M. (2024). Victimization: Child’s characteristics, parenting practices, and peer relationships. A mixed methods study: Victimization: A mixed methods study. Psychology Hub, 41(2).



Original Article